What Do Words Really Mean?
1 the abuse of drugs misuse, exploitation, imposition, oppression, wrong, ill-treatment, maltreatment formal misapplication
2 child abuse mistreatment, maltreatment, ill-treatment, cruelty, hurt, injury, molestation, damage, harm, beating, torture
3 shout abuse insult(s), swearing, swear-word, cursing, curse, offence, defamation, libel, slander, reproach, censure, scolding formal affront, upbraiding, invective, castigation, malediction, vilification, vituperation, calumniation, calumny, contumely, denigration, derision, disparagement, tirade, diatribe, vitriol
1 abuse authority misuse, exploit, take advantage of formal misapply
2 abuse children ILL-TREAT, maltreat, hurt, injure, damage, harm, beat, hit, batter, oppress, exploit, wrong, torture, molest, rape, harass sexually
3 abuse immigrants INSULT, swear at, curse, hurl abuse at, call names, be rude to, defame, libel, slander, pick on, bully, smear, scold, rail, victimize formal malign, revile, upbraid, calumniate, castigate, denigrate, disparage, oppugn colloq. slate, treat like dirt
abuse or misuse?
Abuse refers to the use of something for the wrong purposes: substance abuse, eg glue-sniffing. Misuse refers to the use of substances or objects in an incorrect way: Bacteria may acquire resistance to a particular antibiotic by its overuse or misuse.
asylum noun (asylums)
1 a place of safety or protection.
2 historical a mental hospital. give or grant asylum to someone said of a country, state, etc: to offer them the opportunity to stay, especially when return to their own country might put them in jeopardy. See also political asylum.
be verb (been, being; present tense am, are, is; past tense was, were) intrans 1 to exist or live • I think, therefore I am. 2 to occur or take place • Lunch is in an hour. 3 to occupy a position in space • She is at home. 4 in past tense to go • He's never been to Italy. 5 to remain or continue without change • Let it be. 6 (as a copula) used to link a subject and what is said about it • She is a doctor • He is ill. 7 used with the infinitive form of a verb to express a possibility, command, intention, outcome, etc • if it were to rain • We are to come tomorrow • It was not to be. auxiliary verb 1 used with a past participle to form a passive construction • The film was shown last night. 2 used with a present participle to form the progressive tenses • He was running. be someone to suit them • That hat really isn't her. be that as it may although that may be true. the be-all and end-all the only important issue or overriding aim.
1 existence; life • come into being.
2 a living person or thing • beings from another world.
3 essence; essential self or nature, especially that of a person • She was like part of my very being.
1 an area of skin discoloration and swelling caused by the leakage of blood from damaged blood vessels following injury. Technical equivalent contusion.
2 a similar injury to a fruit or plant, shown as a soft discoloured area. verb (bruised, bruising) 1 to mark and discolour (the surface of the skin or of a fruit, etc) in this way. 2 intrans to develop bruises • I bruise easily.
3 tr & intr to hurt or be hurt emotionally or mentally.
4 cookery, etc to crush or pound (eg berries, leaves, or other foods), generally to release the juices or flavour. bruised adj.
bully noun verb
persecutor, tormentor, browbeater, intimidator, bully-boy, ruffian, thug, bouncer colloq. heavy, tough
persecute, torment, terrorize, bulldoze, coerce, browbeat, bullyrag, intimidate, cow, tyrannize, pick on, victimize, domineer, overbear, oppress colloq. push around
1 attention and thoroughness.
2 caution; gentleness; regard for safety.
3 the activity of looking after someone or something, or the state of being looked after.
4 worry or anxiety.
5 a cause for worry; a responsibility.
verb (cared, caring) intrans
1 to mind or be upset by something, or the possibility of something.
2 (usually care about or for someone or something) to concern oneself about them or be interested in them.
3 to wish or be willing • Would you care to come? as if I, etc care or cared colloq it doesn't matter to me, etc. care of (abbreviation c/o) written on letters, etc addressed to a person at someone else's address. for all I, etc care colloq without upsetting me, etc in the least. have a care! old use be more careful, considerate, etc. I, etc couldn't care less colloq it doesn't matter to me, etc in the least. in care being looked after by a local authority, etc, or in a hospital, etc, instead of at home. take care to be cautious, watchful or thorough. take care of someone or something 1 to look after them. 2 to attend to or organize them.
care for someone or something 1 to look after them. 2 to be fond of or love them. 3 to like or approve of them • I don't care for mushrooms. 4 to have a wish or desire for them • Would you care for a drink?
career noun 1 one's professional life; one's progress in one's job. 2 a job, occupation or profession. 3 one's progress through life generally. 4 a swift or headlong course. verb (careered, careering) intrans to rush in an uncontrolled or headlong way.
ETYMOLOGY: 16c: from French carrière racecourse, from Latin carriara carriage road, from carrus wagon.
carer noun the person who has the responsibility for looking after an ill, disabled or otherwise dependent person.
client noun 1 someone using the services of a professional institution eg a bank, a law firm, an estate agent, etc. 2 a customer. 3 someone looked after by a social worker, etc.
consult verb (consulted, consulting) 1 to ask the advice of • consult a lawyer. 2 to refer to (a map, book, etc). 3 to consider (wishes, feelings, etc). 4 intrans (often consult with someone) to have discussions with them. 5 intrans to give advice as a consultant • He consults on Tuesday and Friday afternoons.
consultant noun 1 someone who gives professional advice. 2 in a hospital or clinic: a doctor or surgeon holding the most senior post in a particular field of medicine, and accepting ultimate responsibility for the treatment and care of patients. 3 someone who seeks advice or information. consultancy noun (consultancies).
1 MAD, insane, lunatic, unbalanced, disturbed, deranged, demented, crazed, wild, berserk, unhinged, out of your mind colloq. loony, loopy, bonkers, nuts, nutty, nutty as a fruitcake, doolally, off your rocker, out to lunch, needing your head examining, round the bend, round the twist, not all there, having lost your marbles, having several cards short of a full deck, with one sandwich short of a picnic
2 What a crazy idea! silly, foolish, idiotic, stupid, senseless, unwise, imprudent, nonsensical, absurd, odd, peculiar, ludicrous, ridiculous, preposterous, outrageous, impracticable, unrealistic, foolhardy, irresponsible, wild colloq. daft, barmy, batty, potty, half-baked, hare-brained, crackbrained, crackpot
3 crazy about golf enthusiastic, fanatical, zealous, devoted, fond, keen, avid, ardent, passionate, infatuated, enamoured, smitten, mad, wild colloq. daft, nuts
go mad, blow up; colloq. go ballistic, flip (your lid), lose your marbles; US slang go ape
crisis noun (crises) 1 a crucial or decisive moment. 2 a turning-point, eg in a disease. 3 a time of difficulty or distress. 4 an emergency.
delinquent n, adj
offender, criminal, wrongdoer, law-breaker, hooligan, young offender, culprit, ruffian, vandal formal miscreant
criminal, offending, law-breaking, lawless, guilty, negligent formal remiss, culpable
demonstration noun 1 showing or demonstrating, especially a practical lesson, explanation or exhibition. 2 a public display of opinion on a political or moral issue. 3 math, philos establishing as true or evident by argument or proof. See also dem
1 any chemical substance which, when taken into the body or applied externally, has a specific effect on its functioning.
2 any such substance, especially one which is abused, habitual or addictive, and possession of which is illegal.
3 anything craved for. verb (drugged, drugging)
1 to administer a drug to (a person or animal).
2 to poison or stupefy with drugs.
3 to mix or season (food) with drugs. a drug on the market a commodity in plentiful supply but not in demand.
drug addict noun someone who has become dependent on drugs.
drug addiction noun the physical and psychological state of dependence that results from taking certain drugs habitually.
druggie or druggy noun (druggies) colloq a drug addict. Also as adj.
druggist noun, now N Amer, especially US a pharmacist.
drugstore noun, N Amer, especially US a chemist's shop, especially one also selling refreshments.
1 consisting of or representing two separate parts.
2 double; twofold. See also number (noun 12). verb (dualled, dualling) to upgrade (a road) by making it into a dual carriageway.
diagnosis noun (diagnoses)
1 medicine the process whereby a disease or disorder is provisionally identified on the basis of its symptoms and the patient's medical history.
2 biol in taxonomy: a formal description, eg of a plant, made on the basis of its distinguishing characteristics.
3 identification of problems in other areas, eg in mechanics and computing.
electroconvulsive therapy noun, medicine (abbreviation ECT) the treatment of mental illness by passing small electric currents through the brain. Also called electric shock therapy or shock therapy or shock treatment.
emergency noun (emergencies) 1 an unexpected and serious happening which calls for immediate and determined action. 2 a a serious injury needing immediate medical treatment; b a patient suffering such an injury. See also state of emergency.
1 FEELING, passionate, sensitive, responsive, loving, ardent, tender, warm, roused, demonstrative, excitable, enthusiastic, fervent, impassioned, moved, sentimental, zealous, hot-blooded, heated, tempestuous, overcharged, temperamental, fiery
2 EMOTIVE, moving, poignant, thrilling, touching, stirring, heart-warming, soul-stirring, exciting, sentimental, pathetic colloq. tear-jerking, soppy, schmaltzy
1 the ability to share, understand and feel another person's feelings.
2 the power of entering into the feeling or spirit of something, especially a work of art, and so appreciating it fully. empathetic or empathic adj able to share others' feelings.
empower verb (usually empower someone to do something) to give them authority or official permission to do it. empowerment noun.
1 (often the Government) a body of people, usually elected, with the power to control the affairs of a country or state.
2 a the way in which this is done;
b the particular system used.
3 the act or practice of ruling; control.
hear verb (heard , hearing)
1 tr & intr to perceive (sounds) with the ear.
2 to listen to something • Did you hear what he said?
3 intrans (usually hear about or of something) to be told about it or informed of it.
4 intrans (usually hear from someone) to be contacted by them, especially by letter or telephone.
5 law to listen to and judge (a case). hearer noun. hear! hear! an expression of agreement or approval. hear tell or hear tell of something dialect to be told about it. not hear of something not to allow it to happen • They would not hear of it
homeopathy or homoeopathy noun a system of alternative medicine where a disease is treated by prescribing small doses of drugs which produce symptoms similar to those of the disease itself.
human adj, n
1 MORTAL, physical, fleshly, fallible, flesh and blood, weak, susceptible, vulnerable, reasonable, rational formal anthropoid
2 KIND, considerate, understanding, humane, compassionate, sympathetic
kind, compassionate, sympathetic, understanding, kind-hearted, good-natured, considerate, gentle, tender, loving, mild, lenient, merciful, forgiving, forbearing, kindly, generous, benevolent, charitable, humanitarian, good, benign
ANTONYM inhumane, cruel
humanitarian adj, n
benevolent, charitable, philanthropic, public-spirited, welfare, compassionate, humane, kind, sympathetic, understanding, considerate, generous, altruistic, unselfish
ANTONYM selfish, self-seeking
philanthropist, benefactor, good Samaritan, do-gooder, altruist
benevolence, charitableness, charity, goodwill, philanthropy, humanism, compassionateness, generosity, loving-kindness formal beneficence
1 HUMAN RACE, humankind, mankind, womankind, mortals, mortality, people, man technical homo sapiens
2 HUMANENESS, kindness, compassion, fellow-feeling, brotherly love, understanding, tenderness, sympathy, gentleness, tenderness, thoughtfulness, benevolence, tolerance, generosity, goodwill, kind-heartedness, goodness, pity, mercy
ANTONYM 2 inhumanity, cruelty
improve, better, polish, refine, domesticate, tame, civilize, cultivate, educate, enlighten, edify
human rights noun the rights every person has to justice and freedom.
human being noun a member of the human race; a person.
1 knowledge gained or given; facts; news. Often shortened to info.
2 the communicating or receiving of knowledge. Also as adj • information desk • information centre.
3 especially N Amer directory enquiries.
4 especially telecomm, computing a signal or character which represents data.
5 law an accusation made before a court or magistrate. informational adj.
insane adj (insaner, insanest)
1 said of a person: not of sound mind; mentally ill.
2 colloq said especially of actions: extremely foolish; stupid.
3 belonging or relating to, or for, the mentally ill • an insane asylum.
4 (the insane) insane people as a group (see the 4b). insanely adverb.
involve verb (involved, involving) 1 to require as a necessary part. 2 (usually involve someone in something) to cause them to take part or be implicated in it. 3 to have an effect on someone or something. 4 (often involve oneself in something) to become emotionally concerned in it. involved adj 1 concerned, implicated. 2 complicated. involvement noun.
karma noun (karmas) Buddhism, Hinduism
1 the sum of someone's lifetime's actions, seen as governing their fate in the next life.
2 destiny; fate.
3 popularly an aura or quality that is perceived to be given off by someone or something, or by a place. karmic adj.
karma noun (karmas) Buddhism, Hinduism
1 the sum of someone's lifetime's actions, seen as governing their fate in the next life.
2 destiny; fate.
3 popularly an aura or quality that is perceived to be given off by someone or something, or by a place. karmic adj.
adjective MAINLY US INFORMAL
(especially of a person) strange in their appearance or behaviour, especially in a way that is interesting:
She's got this kooky, high-pitched voice.
noun [C] US INFORMAL
a strange person
noun [U] MAINLY US INFORMAL
1 a a note, tag or sticker that specifies details of something's contents, destination, ownership, etc;
b a tag or sticker attached to something, which carries advice about how to use it, wash it, care for it, etc.
2 a word or short phrase which is used to describe a person, movement or school of thought • The label 'Left-wing' is a relative one.
3 a small strip of material, etc which has the name of the maker or designer on it.
4 a a recording company's trademark;
b the sticker in the middle of a record (noun 4) that has information about the music, performers, production, etc on it.
5 computing a character or set of characters used as a means of identifying the position of an instruction by citing it in a particular place in a program (see under programme), and which, having been declared as a label, can then be referred to from elsewhere in the program.
6 chem an element, often a radioactive atom, that is used for the identification or monitoring of a chemical reaction, molecule, living organism, etc. verb (labelled, labelling or US labeled, labeling)
1 a to mark something in a specified way with a special tag, sticker, etc;
b to attach a tag, sticker, etc to something.
2 to call someone or some group by a specified name.
3 chem to use an element, often a radioactive atom, to identify or monitor (a chemical reaction, a molecule, organism, etc).
listen verb (listened, listening) intrans
1 (also listen to someone or something) to try to hear them or it.
2 (also listen to someone or something) to pay attention to them or it.
3 to follow advice • I warned him but he wouldn't listen. listen to reason see under reason.
lobotomy noun (lobotomies) surgery
1 any operation that involves cutting into a lobe of an organ or gland.
2 (especially prefrontal lobotomy) an operation in which the nerve fibres connecting the frontal lobes with the rest of the brain are severed, in an attempt to treat certain severe mental disorders. lobotomize or lobotomise verb.
lunatic n, adj
psychotic, psychopath, madman, madwoman, insane person, imbecile, maniac, manic-depressive, neurotic colloq. loony, nutcase, nutter, fruitcake, psycho, headcase, oddball; slang dipstick
mad, insane, deranged, psychotic, unbalanced, disturbed, demented, irrational, foolish, idiotic, absurd, stupid, illogical, nonsensical, senseless, silly, inane colloq. crazy, bonkers, loony, loopy, nuts, nutty, daft, barmy, potty, hare-brained, crackpot, off your rocker, round the bend/twis
madness, insanity, aberration, derangement, dementia, dementedness, mania, idiocy, imbecility, folly, foolishness, absurdity, nonsense, stupidity, preposterousness, outrageousness, irresponsibility, silliness, inanity, ridiculousness, illogicality, irrationality, senselessness formal imprudence colloq. craziness
1 INSANE, lunatic, unbalanced, psychotic, deranged, maniacal, demented, out of your mind, out of your senses, of unsound mind, unhinged, crazed, unstable, non compos mentis, frenzied, manic colloq. crazy, nuts, nutty, nutty as a fruitcake, barmy, bonkers, batty, crackers, dippy, daffy, bananas, loony, loopy, off your rocker, off your head, off the wall, off your trolley, out to lunch, needing your head examined, round the bend, round the twist, having a screw loose, having bats in the belfry, having lost your marbles
2 ANGRY, furious, enraged, raging, infuriated, incensed, irate, blazing, fuming, livid, hopping mad, seeing red, hot under the collar
3 IRRATIONAL, illogical, unreasonable, absurd, ludicrous, preposterous, foolish, foolhardy, idiotic, insane, stupid, silly, nonsensical, wild colloq. crazy, daft, barmy, potty, hare-brained, crackbrained, crackpot
4 FANATICAL, enthusiastic, infatuated, ardent, zealous, devoted, fond, keen, avid, passionate, wild colloq. crazy, daft, nuts
5 UNCONTROLLED, wild, frantic, furious, reckless, violent, energetic, intense, rapid, hasty, hurried, unrestrained, frenzied, abandoned, excited
energetically, quickly, furiously, wildly, frantically, hurriedly, enthusiastically, fanatically, zealously avidly
1 colloq a person who behaves wildly • He is a maniac on the road.
2 an extremely keen enthusiast • a video maniac.
3 psychol, old use someone suffering from mania (sense 1a); a lunatic or madman. adj (also maniacal)
1 affected by or relating to mania (sense 1 or 2).
2 behaving like or characteristic of a maniac.
3 in compounds someone affected by an uncontrollable desire for, or with great enthusiasm for, a specified thing • pyromaniac.
1 psychol characteristic of, relating to or suffering from mania (noun 1). 2
colloq very energetic or active. manically adverb.
ETYMOLOGY: Early 20c.
1 INTELLECTUAL, abstract, unconscious, conceptual, theoretical, rational formal cognitive, cerebral
2 MAD, insane, lunatic, crazy, deranged, psychotic, disturbed colloq. (mentally) unbalanced, loony, nuts, barmy, bonkers, off your head, off your trolley, having a screw loose
ANTONYM 1 physical 2 sane
intellectually, in the mind, inwardly, psychologically, rationally, temperamentally, subjectively, emotionally
minority noun (minorities) 1 a small number, or the smaller of two numbers, sections or groups. 2 a group of people who are different, especially in terms of race or religion, from most of the people (ie the majority) in a country, region, etc. 3 the state of being the smaller or lesser of two groups • in a minority. 4 the state of being below the age of legal majority. Often as adj • minority party • minority rights • minority view.
ETYMOLOGY: 16c: from Latin minoritas; related to minor.
National Health Service noun, Brit (abbreviation NHS) the system set up in 1948 to provide medical treatment for all UK residents free, or at a nominal charge, at the point of delivery, financed mainly by taxation.
nervous breakdown noun a mental illness attributed loosely to stress, with intense anxiety, low self-esteem and loss of concentration.
nut noun 1 popularly a a fruit consisting of a kernel contained in a hard shell, eg a hazlenut or walnut; b the kernel itself. 2 bot a hard dry indehiscent one-seeded fruit. 3 popularly a roasted peanut. 4 a small, usually hexagonal, piece of metal with a hole through it, for screwing on the end of a bolt. 5 colloq a person's head. 6 colloq (also nutter) a crazy person. 7 colloq, usually in compounds an enthusiast; a person with an obsessive interest • a football nut. 8 a small lump • a nut of butter. 9 (nuts) colloq testicles. 10 music a the ridge at the top of the fingerboard on a violin, etc; b the mechanism for tightening the bow. 11 in compounds a small biscuit or cake • ginger nut. verb (nutted, nutting) 1 intrans to look for and gather nuts. 2 colloq to butt someone with the head. nutter see noun 6 above. nuttiness noun. do one's nut colloq to be furious. for nuts colloq at all • can't sing for nuts. a hard or tough nut to crack colloq 1 a difficult problem to solve. 2 an awkward person to deal with. off one's nut colloq mad. See also nuts.
ETYMOLOGY: Anglo-Saxon hnutu.
patient adj having or showing patience. noun a person who is being treated by, or is registered with, a doctor, dentist, etc. patiently adverb in a patient way; with patience.
petition noun 1 a formal written request to an authority to take some action, signed by a large number of people. 2 any appeal to a higher authority. 3 law an application to a court for some procedure to be set in motion. verb (petitioned, petitioning) tr & intr (also petition someone for or against something) to address a petition to them for or against some cause; to make an appeal or request. petitionary adj. petitioner noun 1 someone who petitions. 2 someone who applies for a divorce.
ETYMOLOGY: 15c: French, from Latin petitio, from petere to seek.
policy1 noun (policies) 1 a plan of action, usually based on certain principles, decided on by a body or individual. 2 a principle or set of principles on which to base decisions • It is not our policy to charge for service. 3 a course of conduct to be followed • Your best policy is to keep quiet and let us do the talking. 4 prudence; acumen; wisdom. 5 (usually policies) Scots the surrounding grounds of a mansion • walk round the policies.
ETYMOLOGY: 15c in sense 4; 14c in obsolete sense 'governmental administration': from French policie, from Latin politia; see police.
political adj 1 relating or belonging to government or public affairs. 2 relating to politics. 3 interested or involved in politics. 4 said of a course of action: made in the interests of gaining or keeping power. 5 said of a map: showing political and social structure rather than physical features. politically adverb.
psychiatry noun the branch of medicine concerned with the study, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of mental and emotional disorders such as psychoses, neuroses, schizophrenia, depression, eating disorders, mental handicap, etc. psychiatric adj. psychiatrist noun.
ETYMOLOGY: 19c: from psyche + Greek iatros doctor.
mental, intellectual, cognitive, emotional, subjective, subconscious, unconscious, psychosomatic, irrational, unreal, imaginary formal cerebral
ANTONYM physical, real
1 study psychology science of the mind, study of the mind, study of mental processes, science of human/animal behaviour
2 the psychology of crowds mind, mental characteristics, behavioural characteristics, mental chemistry, make-up, attitudes, habits, motives, mindset colloq. what makes someone tick
lunatic, mad person, maniac, sociopath, psychotic colloq. psycho
lunatic, mad, insane, maniacal, psychotic, deranged, unbalanced, mentally disturbed, demented
rational adj 1 related to or based on reason or logic. 2 able to think, form opinions, make judgements, etc. 3 sensible; reasonable. 4 sane. 5 math said of a quantity, ratio, root: able to be expressed as a ratio of whole numbers. rationality noun 1 being rational. 2 the possession or due exercise of reason. 3 reasonableness. rationally adverb.
ETYMOLOGY: 14c: from Latin rationalis, from ratio reason.
recovery noun (recoveries) an act, instance or process of recovering, or state of having recovered, in any sense.
spiritual adj 1 belonging, referring or relating to the spirit or soul rather than to the body or to physical things. 2 belonging, referring or relating to religion; sacred, holy or divine • a spiritual leader. 3 a belonging, referring or relating to, or arising from, the mind or intellect; b highly refined in thought, feelings, etc. 4 belonging, referring or relating to spirits, ghosts, etc • the spiritual world. noun (also Negro spiritual) a type of religious song that is characterized by voice harmonies and which developed from the communal singing traditions of Black people in the southern states of the USA. spirituality noun. spiritually adverb. spiritualness noun.
ETYMOLOGY: 13c: from Latin spiritualis; see spirit.
terrorize or terrorise verb (terrorized, terrorizing) 1 to frighten greatly. 2 to control or coerce someone by threatening violence.
truth noun 1 the quality or state of being true, genuine or factual. 2 the state of being truthful; sincerity; honesty. 3 that which is true. 4 that which is established or generally accepted as true • scientific truths. 5 strict adherence to an original or standard. God's (honest) truth something that is absolutely true. in truth really, actually. to tell the truth or truth to tell to be frank or honest • To tell the truth, I really can't stand her.
ETYMOLOGY: Anglo-Saxon treowth.
understand verb 1 to grasp the meaning of (a subject, words, a person, a language, etc) • I've never understood trigonometry • I could understand him when he spoke more slowly • Do you understand Polish? 2 to make out the significance, cause, etc of something • I don't understand what all the fuss is about. 3 to have sympathetic awareness of someone or something • I fully understand your point of view. 4 to infer from the available information • He got the sack? I understood that he'd resigned. 5 to mentally put in (a word or words) • A relative pronoun is understood to be there. understand each other or one another 1 to know and accept each other's opinions, feelings, etc. 2 to agree.
understanding noun 1 the act of understanding or the ability to understand. 2 someone's perception or interpretation of information received. 3 an informal agreement. 4 a sympathetic harmony of viewpoints. 5 a condition agreed upon • on the understanding that you stay for six months. adj sympathetic to, or keenly aware of, the feelings and opinions of others. understandingly adverb.
user noun 1 someone who uses a specified facility such as a leisure centre, a computer network, etc. 2 someone who regularly takes a specified drug • a heroin user.
victim noun 1 a person or animal subjected to death, suffering, ill-treatment or trickery. 2 a person or animal killed in a sacrifice or ritual.
ETYMOLOGY: 15c: from Latin victima beast for sacrifice.
wellbeing noun the state of being healthy and contented, etc; welfare.